STEP 2: Change sentence structure. Following are some suggestions on how to change
                sentence structure.


   
1. Use “There + verb to be + noun phrase.”
 

“Verb to be” should be put in the same tense as that of the verb in the original sentence.


           

   Examples:

   The number of hungry people has increased in the last decade.

       Step1       The number of starving population has grown in the last decade.

       Step2  
     There has been a growing number of starving population in the last decade.   

OR

                       There has been a growth in the number of starving population in the last decade.



   
2. Use “It is + adjective + for (pronoun/ noun) + to (infinitive).”
 

This structure is frequently used when we talk about probability, possibility, necessity, obligation,
importance, frequency, difficulty, or vice versa.


           

   Examples:

   You need the most up-to-date antivirus programs to ensure your hard drive and e-mail are not
   infected.


       Step1       You must have the most modern antivirus programs to make sure your hard drive and
                                 e-mail are not damaged.

OR

                       You must have the most modern antivirus programs to protect your hard drive and
                                 e-mail.


       Step2       
It is necessary (for you) to have the most modern antivirus programs to protect
                                your hard drive and e-mail.
                                (Note: “for + pronoun” is often omitted.)


  
 
The power plant would aggravate the shortage of water in the area if it was given permission to
    use up to 50,000 cubic meters of water a day.


       Step1       
The power plant would worsen the water shortage in the area if it  was allowed to
                                 consume up to 50,000 cubic meters of water daily.


       Step2       
It is possible for the power plant to worsen the water shortage in the area
                                if it was allowed to consume up to 50,000 cubic meters of water daily.



   
3. Reduce a clause to a phrase and make other necessary changes
 

   Examples:

   Technology is now so potent and pervasive that it seems to be the main driver of social change.

       Step1       Technology is at present so powerful and widely used that it appears to be the
                                
main driving force of social change.

       Step2  
     At present, powerful and widely used technology appears to be the main
                               
driving force of social change. 


   You need the most up-to-date antivirus programs to ensure your hard drive and e-mail are not
   
infected.

       Step1       You must have the most modern antivirus programs to make sure your hard drive and
                               
e-mail are not damaged.

OR

                       You must have the most modern antivirus programs to protect your hard drive and
                               
e-mail.

       Step2  
      The most modern antivirus programs will protect your hard drive and e-mail.



   
4. Use a participial phrase to combine two clauses or two sentences that have the same subject.
      Make sure you change the verb into the correct form of participles.
 

   Examples:

work/ worked/ working  

working

is polluted/  was polluted  

polluted

have risen/ had risen  

having risen
have been reduced    

having been reduced


                   


a) Replace a relative clause by deleting the relative pronoun (who, which, that) and changing the
    verb to a participle form.


   Examples:

   
Police held back protesters who attempted to break through the barricades.


       Step1       Police held back demonstrators who tried to break through the barriers.
 

       Step2       
Police held back demonstrators trying to break through the barriers.


   Agricultural Land Reform Act has a major loophole which will let investors have farmers’ land
   in their possession.

       Step1       Agricultural Land Reform Act has a major loophole that will allow investors to take
                                ownership of farmers’ land.


       Step2       
Agricultural Land Reform Act has a major loophole allowing investors to
                               
take ownership of farmers’ land.

                   

b) If the two clauses/ sentences show the relationship in time, the one which happens before could
    be changed into a participial phrase.


   Examples:

   After Tom paid for the famous painting, he discovered that it was a reproduction.

       Step1       After Tom bought the famous painting, he found out that it was a fake.
 

       Step2       
After buying the famous painting, Tom found out that it was a fake.


   The doctor found an irregularity as he was watching the patient’s respiratory rate.

       Step1       The doctor discovered an irregularity while he was observing the patient’s
                               
respiratory rate.

       Step2       
The doctor discovered an irregularity while observing the patient’s respiratory rate.


                   

c) If the two clauses/ sentences imply the cause-result relationship, the one which indicates the
   
cause or reason could be changed into a participial phrase.

   Examples:

   The owner of a petrol station could not verify the sources of the petrol. As a result, he was
   alleged to illegally stock up on oil.

       Step1       The petrol station owner failed to verify the petrol sources. Therefore, he was
                                charged with illegal stockpile of oil.
 

       Step2       
Failing to verify the petrol sources, the petrol station owner was charged with
                                illegal stockpile of oil.


   Typhoon left more than a thousand people with no choice but to evacuate from villages in the
   mountains since it dumped over one meter of torrential rain on mountainous areas.

       Step1       Typhoon forced more than a thousand people to escape from villages in the
                               
mountains as it poured over one meter of heavy rain on mountainous areas.

       Step2       
Pouring over one meter of heavy rain on mountainous areas, typhoon forced more
                                than a thousand people to escape from villages in the mountains.



   
5. Use active or passive verb forms.
 
To change between active and passive structures is useful for paraphrasing. The overall meaning of
the sentence remains the same although there is a slight shift in the emphasis of the subject.

   Examples:

   The ICT Ministry was assigned by the cabinet to oversee the electronic ID card bidding.

       Step1       The ICT Ministry was appointed by the government to supervise the electronic
                               
ID card bidding.


       Step2  
     The government appointed the ICT Ministry to supervise the electronic ID card
                               
bidding. 


   PTT and Siam Cement will fund the building of new water pipelines in the Eastern seaboard.

       Step1       PTT and Siam Cement will finance the construction of pipelines in the Eastern
                                seaboard.

       Step2  
      The construction of new water pipelines in the Eastern seaboard will be financed by
                               
PTT and Siam Cement.


       There are, however, situations in which the passive is preferred to the active voice, that is, when the performer of the action is not known, not important, understood, or obvious.

Examples:

           A new medicine to cure human influenza has been successfully developed (by researchers).

           A teenager was arrested (by the police) on charge of drug trafficking.

 

Home
| Step1 | Step2 | Step3